This course provides a basic introduction to the concept of “Security Sector Reform” (SSR) which is widely recognized as a vital component of building sustainable peace in societies in post-conflict contexts. Such reform is necessary to enhance the security and safety of people and for preventing emerging or recurring crises and conflicts. Through a critical analysis of policies, procedures, programs, activities and case studies in global, regional and local contexts, the course will clarify how Governments and intergovernmental agencies can improve the provision of security, safety and justice to citizens and institutions based on the rule of law and related standards or principles of human rights, gender equality, human security, transparency, accountability, democratic participation and good governance. Specific security sector reforms to be examined include disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs vital in the transition from the ending of armed conflict to a peaceful societal order; reform of various law and order and defense agencies (e.g. armed forces; police; justice, national security) and the establishment of effective civilian oversight of the security system. Emphasis will also be placed in this course on major UN policy and operational areas for supporting SSR, including peacekeeping, DDR and post-conflict peacebuilding, and the role of the United Nations Inter-Agency Security Sector Reform Task Force (IASSRTF) to “promote an integrated, holistic and coherent United Nations security sector reform (SSR) approach that envisages to assist States and societies in establishing effective, inclusive and accountable security”. The civil society-led initiative of a United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS) will also be explored in terms of its potential positive contributions to international Security Sector Reform.
- Professor: Manish Thapa